This plenary keynote paper marks 35-th anniversary of description of the first artificial brain, a neural network which in addition of computing cognitive actions, computes emotive evaluations of the consequence of those actions. It was designed in 1981, as part of an effort within the Adaptive Networks Group of the COINS Department of University of Massachusetts in Amherst to solve the problems of 1) designing a delayed reinforcement learning mechanism for artificial neural networks and 2) designing a self learning system which will learn without external reinforcement of any kind. This paper describes steps which led toward solution of those problems. The proposed artificial brain, named Crossbar Adaptive Array, can be viewed as a model of cognition-emotion interaction in biological brains, and can be used in building brains for cognitive and emotive robotics.
emotional robots, computer simulation of the brain, cognition- emotion interaction, secondary reinforcement, emotion backpropagation, Adaptive Networks Group, Crossbar Adaptive Array, artificial brain